Many mistakes can be avoided if there are materials of engineering-geological and geodetic surveys on the site of the designed building. Information about engineering and geological conditionswill allow to correctly solve the construction part of the project, the question of the feasibility of placing a pool, sauna, garage, etc. in the basement or basement floor, as well as the question of the need to lower the groundwater level. Often, for example, garages are built in the basement. Such a decision is appropriate in the absence of groundwater or the presence of a noticeable slope of the site.
In the last 10 years, the problem of reducing the exposure of the population to natural radionuclides (NRN) in civilian buildings has become one of the most urgent. It is intended not only to reduce exposure to natural sources of radiation contained in new building materials, but also to radon, which enters from the soil into the premises of the building through cracks in the floors on the ground, in the walls of the basement and basement floors, through cracks in the interfloor ceilings and air ducts. Otherwise, it is necessary to establish the radiohazard level of the built-up area in order to make a decision about the feasibility of construction in the considered area or to determine the necessary radon-protective properties of the enclosing structures and develop appropriate technical solutions that meet the requirements of the norms.
During the construction of an individual source of water supply and local treatment facilities, additional materials of engineering-geodetic and hydrogeological surveys are especially needed to identify the need for water treatment and the type of treatment facilities.
The materials of geodetic surveys will allow to more correctly locate all buildings on the allotted site, auxiliary premises inside the cottage, which require water supply and drainage of household sewage, organize the drainage of surface water taking into account the topography of the area.
In some cases, before the end of the project development, a permit for special water use of natural waters is not presented, the location of the water intake well or mine well on the site and, therefore, local treatment facilities is unknown, and there are no technical conditions for gas and electricity supply.
All this does not exclude mistakes in the design of the stripped engineering equipment of buildings (choices, for example, of the heating scheme of the cottage, the thermal power of the heating boiler or the requested amount of electricity, gas). Sometimes projects unjustifiably assume an increased number of water consumption devices. This, with water consumption within regulatory limits, can lead to a decrease in the use of water consumption devices and, thus, to a deterioration in the operating conditions of water supply and drainage systems. It is necessary to strive for the location and vertical zoning of public spaces (toilets, baths, kitchens, saunas, laundry rooms, etc.). In cottages with a total area of 300-500 m2 or more, a central dust removal system is not provided, which undoubtedly makes it difficult to maintain cleanliness in the premises. Cottages of different layouts are being built. Some are close to a square, with mainly flat facades. Others have broken facades, including bay windows and ledges. The fewer broken lines and protrusions, the less heat loss. In a number of buildings, vestibules at the entrance are missing or made narrow, which leads to the penetration of cold air into the room due to the leakage of external doors and when they are opened. Many cottages are built in the open area. In this case, it is quite possible to use solar collectors placed on the sloping roofs of the southern direction, which will significantly reduce the consumption of traditional fuel throughout the year, and improve the environmental situation. According to the developers of domestic solar collectors, 1 m2 of absorbing panel area produces up to 300 liters of hot water per day with a temperature of 40-60 ° C. have mainly flat facades. Others have broken siding kansas city, including bay windows and ledges. The fewer broken lines and protrusions, the less heat loss. In a number of buildings, vestibules at the entrance are missing or made narrow, which leads to the penetration of cold air into the room due to the leakage of external doors and when they are opened. Many cottages are built in the open area. In this case, it is quite possible to use solar collectors placed on the sloping roofs of the southern direction, which will significantly reduce the consumption of traditional fuel throughout the year, and improve the environmental situation.
Architects, and the developers themselves, sometimes (as a tribute to fashion) unreasonably insist on hidden laying of even steel pipes of ordinary heating systems. It is known that when pipes are hidden in the thickness of the outer wall (especially uninsulated), firstly, there is an increase in heat loss and, secondly, it is possible to freeze in the coolant pipes in the cold season when the heating system is temporarily turned off.
In a number of projects, the requirements for the premises in which thermal units for heating and hot water supply, which use natural gas as fuel, are placed are not fulfilled. Premises must have, for example, an exit directly to the outside, natural lighting at the rate of 0.03 m2 of glazing per 1 m3 of room volume and a height of at least 2.5 m. Most often, fire protection requirements are not met in individual residential buildings.
In addition, the use and arrangement of effective thermal insulation materials (for example, expanded polystyrene, mineral and glass wool products) in the multilayer construction of the outer wall with increased heat transfer resistance will allow reducing the thickness of the main structural layer to a minimum, based on the need to ensure the strength of requirements, as well as improve its conditions operation, increase the service life when the insulation is placed on the outside.
The construction of new and the purchase of built cottages, country houses, taking into account the listed and other possible mistakes, will save those who dream of living in improved conditions from many troubles in the future.
Errors can be eliminated or minimized if the architectural and construction part of the residential building project is developed taking into account the main initial data, technical solutions and requirements and together with specialists in heat supply, heating and ventilation, water supply and drainage, electricity supply, gas supply.